Commenting on the two decades since the agreements were signed, Professor Subedi noted that peace and stability have brought “huge dividends” to the country. Desiring to restore and maintain peace in Cambodia, to promote national reconciliation and to ensure the exercise of the right of the Cambodian people to self-determination through free and fair elections, convinced that a comprehensive political settlement for Cambodia is essential to the long-term goal of maintaining peace and security in South-East Asia. Convinced that only a comprehensive political solution to the Cambodian conflict will contribute justly and permanently to peace and security in the region and at the international level, the situation in Cambodia was first addressed by United Nations security in early 1979. Later that year, the General Assembly considered the issue at its regular session and adopted the first of a long series of resolutions on the issue. One of the provisions of that resolution and subsequent resolutions called on the Secretary-General to follow the situation closely and to exercise his good offices to contribute to a peaceful solution to the problem. Another provision commends the Secretary-General`s efforts to coordinate assistance to the Cambodian people, which amounts to more than a billion dollars over the years. 2. Such measures may include, inter alia, the referral of the matter to the United Nations Security Council or the use of the means of peaceful settlement of disputes referred to in Article 33 of the Charter of the United Nations. Taking note of the statements made at the end of the part-sessions from 9 to 10 October. September 1990 in Jakarta, on 21 and 23 December 1990 in Paris, on 24 and 26 June 1991 in Pattaya, on 16 and 17 July 1991 in Beijing, on 26 and 29 August 1991 in Pattaya and at the meetings held in Jakarta from 4 to 6 June 1991 and in New York on 19 September 1991. The CNRP statement ended with a call on the United States and other Western powers to impose harsh sanctions on Hun Sen`s allies and to “immediately convene a meeting between the main signatories to examine gaps in the implementation of the 1991 Paris Peace Accords.” The agreement of 23 October 1991 welcomed the unanimous election of His Highness Prince Norodom Sihanouk as President of the Supreme National Council in Beijing on 17 July 1991 and was the result of long and arduous negotiations. Its main goal was to end the civil war that had raged for more than a decade between the Soviet-backed Cambodian government and Vietnam and three rebel factions backed by China, the United States and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
Conference panelists offered and discussed the following lessons to understand the importance of the EFA`s record and apply the lessons to future peace agreements. In Washington, about 200 people gathered at the Capitol to commemorate the 1991 signing. They called on Hun Sen to abide by the agreements, but also called on the US Congress to impose sanctions on hun Sen`s regime. At its second official meeting in Pattaya from 26 to 29 August, the SNC discussed the draft settlement agreements of 26 August. November 1990 and, with the participation of the representative of the Co-Chairs and the Secretary-General, have made considerable progress in finding compromise solutions to most of the outstanding difficulties. These included the issue of military arrangements during the transitional period. The SNC has requested the Secretary-General, through Prince Sihanouk, to send a number of military observers to Cambodia and to start assistance for cambodia`s rehabilitation as soon as possible. Twenty years ago, on October 23, 1991, 19 governments came together to sign the Paris Peace Accords, which offered a comprehensive political solution to end the “tragic conflict and ongoing bloodshed in Cambodia.” A few months after the International Conference on Cambodia, held from 13 to 17 September. Convened by the General Assembly in New York in July 1981, Secretary-General Javier Pe`rez de Cuellar renewed the offer of good offices. It invited its Special Representative for Humanitarian Affairs in South-East Asia, Mr.
Rafeeuddin Ahmed, to establish contacts with the main countries concerned in order to assess the positions of the parties and promote the gradual convergence of positions through dialogue. Accordingly, Mr. Ahmed undertook a mission in February and March 1982 to consult with the Governments of the region and encourage them to consider convening a limited international conference in which the parties, the concerned countries of the region and the five permanent members of the Security Council should participate. At the same time, the Secretary-General has continued his own contacts with Governments, both at United Nations Headquarters and in the capitals of the world. He pointed out to the General Assembly at its thirty-seventh session, in 1982, that only a comprehensive political solution achieved through genuine negotiations would ultimately bring about peace. It reaffirmed its determination to continue to exercise its good offices and to assist all parties concerned in seeking a negotiated solution. (b) To refrain from entering into military alliances or other military agreements with other States that would be incompatible with its neutrality, without prejudice to Cambodia`s right to acquire military equipment, weapons, ammunition and assistance necessary to exercise its inherent right to self-defence and the maintenance of law and order; Final Act of the Paris Conference on Cambodia (23.10.1991) Published by the USIP Library on: 22 February 2000 Name of source: United Nations, Department of Public Information, Agreements on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodian Conflict: Paris, 23 October 1991, January 1992, 1-6. The 1991 PPA that ended the conflict between Vietnam and Cambodia was completed at a unique moment of geopolitical confluence. The Cold War was over; the major international powers, regional powers and Cambodian parties are at an impasse; and everyone feared that the conflict was over. Japan has sought to sit on the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) as well as to play a growing role in the region. The Soviet Union collapsed and its forces and proxies plundered Cambodia. The complicated task of the top U.S.
negotiator, Under Secretary of State for Asian and East Asian Affairs Richard Solomon, was to convince the five permanent members of the UN Security Council to support a UN peace agreement and their Cambodian clients. Other important players – such as France`s Claude Martin, Indonesia`s Ali Alitas and Australia`s Gareth Ev-ans – also played a crucial role. “As the negotiations progressed, there was always a sense of tragedy on us, which was demonstrated by a constant vigil led by monks singing and praying for peace,” recalled Ambas-Sador Mark Storella, a former member of the US delegation to the PPA and later deputy head of mission in Cambodia. “Each of the P-5 members of the UN Security Council supported one of the four Cambodian factions and brought their clients to an agreement.” The Conference Coordination Committee, chaired by the representatives of the two Co-Chairs, was established to provide overall coordination of the work of the other four Committees. The Coordination Committee met at the first and second sessions of the Conference. On the 21st. An informal meeting of the Coordination Committee was also held in New York in September 1991. Human rights activist Thun Saray concluded that the promises of the PPAs and APRON COULD have been BETTER implemented IF THE DONOR COMMUNITY HAD CONTINUED TO FOCUS ON PROTECTING HUMAN RIGHTS AND REDUCING IMPUNITY. Given the shrinking political space, civil society actors need the strength of the donor community to support them.
The objective of the Human Rights Agreement was to restore peace in the region, but there were no ongoing implementation mechanisms beyond the Commission on Human Rights and the Special Rapporteur on Cambodia. Since the PPA had a start date but not an end date, it can be considered still in effect for citizens and the international community, meaning that signatories are required to remain engaged. On the 23rd. In October 1991, Cambodia and 18 other countries, in the presence of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, signed agreements on a comprehensive political settlement of the Cambodian conflict. .